87xx series:8741 8741AH 8742 8742AH 8744 8744H 8748 8748H 8749 8749H 8751 8751BH 8751H 8751H-8 87551SB 8752BH 8796BH 8796JF 8797BH 8797JF 8798 ...
87Cxx series:87C151SA 87C151SB 87C194 87C196CA 87C196JQ 87C196JR 87C196JT 87C196JV 87C196KB 87C196KC 87C196KD 87C196KQ 87C196KR 87C196KS 87C196KT 87C196LA 87C196MC 87C196MH 87C198 87C251SA 87C251SB 87C251SP 87C251SQ 87C42 87C51 87C51FA 87C51FB 87C51FC 87C51GB 87C51RA 87C51RB 87C51RC 87C52 87C54 87C58 D87C51 D87C151SA D87C151SB D87C194 D87C198 D87C251SA D87C251SP D87C251SQ D87C196CA D87C42 D87C51FA D87C51FB D87C51FC D87C251SB D87C51RA D87C196JQ D87C196JR D87C196JT D87C196JV D87C196KR D87C196KS D87C196KT D87C196LA D87C51RB D87C51RC D87C52 D87C54 D87C51GB D87C58 D87L42 D87L51FA D87L51FB D8751BH D87L51FC D87L52 D87L54 8749 D87L58 D8741 D8741AH D8742 DD8749H D8742AH D8744 D8744H D8748 D8751 8D748H D8751H D8751H-8 D8752BH D8798 D8796BH D8796JF D8797BH D8797JF D87C196MC D87C196MH D87C251SA...
87Lxx series:87L42 87L51FA 87L51FB 87L51FC 87L52 87L54 87L58 ...
Intel, American manufacturer of semiconductor computer circuits. It is headquartered in Santa Clara, California, and the company dominated the global CPU market in the early 21st century. The company's name comes from ¡®integrated electronics.' Learn more about Intel in this article.
A microcontroller (MCU for microcontroller unit) is a small computer on a single metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuit (IC) chip. In modern terminology, it is similar to, but less sophisticated than, a system on a chip (SoC); a SoC may include a microcontroller as one of its components. A microcontroller contains one or more CPUs (processor cores) along with memory and programmable input/output peripherals. Program memory in the form of ferroelectric RAM, NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a small amount of RAM. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications consisting of various discrete chips.
8051 microcontroller is designed by Intel in 1981. It is an 8-bit microcontroller. It is built with 40 pins DIP (dual inline package), 4kb of ROM storage and 128 bytes of RAM storage, 2 16-bit timers. It consists of are four parallel 8-bit ports, which are programmable as well as addressable as per the requirement. An on-chip crystal oscillator is integrated in the microcontroller having crystal frequency of 12 MHz.
Let us now discuss the architecture of 8051 Microcontroller.
In the following diagram, the system bus connects all the support devices to the CPU. The system bus consists of an 8-bit data bus, a 16-bit address bus and bus control signals. All other devices like program memory, ports, data memory, serial interface, interrupt control, timers, and the CPU are all interfaced together through the system bus.
Microcontrollers are divided into various categories based on memory, architecture, bits and instruction sets. Following is the list of their types ?
Based on bit configuration, the microcontroller is further divided into three categories.
8-bit microcontroller ? This type of microcontroller is used to execute arithmetic and logical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication division, etc. For example, Intel 8031 and 8051 are 8 bits microcontroller.
16-bit microcontroller ? This type of microcontroller is used to perform arithmetic and logical operations where higher accuracy and performance is required. For example, Intel 8096 is a 16-bit microcontroller.
32-bit microcontroller ? This type of microcontroller is generally used in automatically controlled appliances like automatic operational machines, medical appliances, etc.
Based on the memory configuration, the microcontroller is further divided into two categories.
External memory microcontroller ? This type of microcontroller is designed in such a way that they do not have a program memory on the chip. Hence, it is named as external memory microcontroller. For example: Intel 8031 microcontroller.
Embedded memory microcontroller ? This type of microcontroller is designed in such a way that the microcontroller has all programs and data memory, counters and timers, interrupts, I/O ports are embedded on the chip. For example: Intel 8051 microcontroller.
Based on the instruction set configuration, the microcontroller is further divided into two categories.
CISC ? CISC stands for complex instruction set computer. It allows the user to insert a single instruction as an alternative to many simple instructions.
RISC ? RISC stands for Reduced Instruction Set Computers. It reduces the operational time by shortening the clock cycle per instruction.
Pins 1 to 8 ? These pins are known as Port 1. This port doesn't serve any other functions. It is internally pulled up, bi-directional I/O port.
Pin 9 ? It is a RESET pin, which is used to reset the microcontroller to its initial values.
Pins 10 to 17 ? These pins are known as Port 3. This port serves some functions like interrupts, timer input, control signals, serial communication signals RxD and TxD, etc.
Pins 18 & 19 ? These pins are used for interfacing an external crystal to get the system clock.
Pin 20 ? This pin provides the power supply to the circuit.
Pins 21 to 28 ? These pins are known as Port 2. It serves as I/O port. Higher order address bus signals are also multiplexed using this port.
Pin 29 ? This is PSEN pin which stands for Program Store Enable. It is used to read a signal from the external program memory.
Pin 30 ? This is EA pin which stands for External Access input. It is used to enable/disable the external memory interfacing.
Pin 31 ? This is ALE pin which stands for Address Latch Enable. It is used to demultiplex the address-data signal of port.
Pins 32 to 39 ? These pins are known as Port 0. It serves as I/O port. Lower order address and data bus signals are multiplexed using this port.
Pin 40 ? This pin is used to provide power supply to the circuit.
Since 1975 Intel has been producing many different types of microcontrollers. In general each MCU that Intel has made falls into one of the below families. The families differ mostly in instruction sets and architecture. Within each family there are many different CPUs. While each CPU may have the same core the feature set can vary a lot. Common differences within a single family are:
Intel MCS-48 - Introduced 1976
The Intel 8048 microcontroller, Intel's first ¦ÌC, was used in the Magnavox Odyssey2 video game console (as a 100KHz 8021) and (in its 8042 variant) in the original IBM PC keyboard. The 8048 is probably the most prominent member of Intel's MCS-48 familiy of microcontrollers. It was inspired by, and is somewhat similar to, the Fairchild F8 microprocessor.
The MCS-48 has over 90 instructions with 90% of them being single byte.
The 8048 has a modified Harvard architecture, with internal or external program ROM and 64¨C256 bytes of internal (on-chip) RAM. The I/O is mapped into its own address space, separate from programs and data. Though the 8048 was eventually replaced by the very popular Intel 8051, even at the turn of the millennium it remains quite popular, due to its low cost, wide availability, memory efficient one-byte instruction set, and mature development tools. Because of this it is much used in high-volume consumer electronics devices such as TV sets, TV remotes, toys, and other
gadgets where cost-cutting is essential.
Intel MCS-41 - Introduced 1979
MCS-41 are slave controllers commonly used for keyboard control or other simple tasks such as ADC control.
The Intel UPI-41/42 is a general-purpose Universal Peripheral Interface that allows designers to grow their own customized solution for peripheral device control. It contains a low-cost microcomputer with 2K of program memory, 128 bytes of data memory, 8-bit timer/counter, and clock generator in a single 40-pin package. Interface registers are included to enable the UPI device to function as a peripheral controller in the
MCS¨¦-48,MCS-51, MCS-80, MCS-85, 8088, 8086 and other 8-, 16-bit systems. The 8742 is software, pin, and architecturally compatible
with the 8741A. The 8742 doubles the on-chip memory space to allow for additional features and performance to be incorporated in upgraded 8741A designs. For new designs, the additional memory and performance of the 8742 extends the UPI concept to more complex motor control
tasks, 80-column printers and process control applications as examples.
The UPI-41 has over 90 instructions with 70% of them being single byte.
Intel MCS-51 - Introduced 1980
The MCS-51 Family includes 2 timers and 4 ports as well as 128bytes or more of on board RAM. The 51 is one of the most popular MCUs on the market. It is now being made in speeds of up to 100MHz by SiLabs, while Intel continues to make them up to 33MHz.
The standard MCS-51 instruction set has 111 instructions with 64 of them executing in a single cycle. They can support up to 64k of external prgram, and 54k of external memory space.
The MCS-51 family is now made by dozens of companies, with many different features. Below is but a small list of these companies:
All told there areover 1000 versions of the 8051 core.
And many more...
The Intel 8xC251TB/TQ and 8xC251SA/SB/SP/SQ are based on the new high performance MCS? 251 micro-controller architecture. Being members of the MCS 251 microcontroller family, the 8xC251TB/TQ and 8xC251SA/SB/SP/SQ have the same advanced register based CPU architecture and a pipelined instruction execution unit. They use the powerful MCS 251 microcontroller instruction set, with many enhanced 8, 16 and 32-bit instructions available. The new microcontrollers are also specially designed to execute C code efficiently. Most importantly, the 8xC251TB/TQ and 8xC251SA/SB/SP/SQ are binary code and pin compatible with the existing MCS 51 microcontrollers. They represent the easiest way to upgrade performance of existing MCS 51 microcontroller applications, delivering up to 15 times the performance.
Intel MCS-96 - Introduced 1982
Intel? MCS 96 microcontroller family of products are popular for 16-bit embedded microcontrollers. The 8XC196 products are found in a variety of embedded applications. The high-performance register to register architecture is well suited for complex real-time control applications such as hard disk drives, modems, printers, pattern recognition and motor control. Our broad portfolio of 8XC196 microcontroller products has been designed to meet your varying peripheral, memory size, addressability and performance requirements.
The 8XC196 family shares a common core architecture which is register based. The MCS 96 microcontroller register architecture eliminates the accumulator bottleneck and enables fast context switching. All devices have bit, byte, word and some 32-bit operations. The table below summarizes the capture and generation of high speed signals on the HSIO and EPA.
The MCS-96, like the MCS-51 is a MCU that is still being made, after 25 years of production there is still no plans to terminate it, just add more features, and get the clock even higher.